As A Test







"Spoken words are the symbols of mental experience, and written words the symbol of spoken words. Just as all men have not the same speech sounds, so all men have not the same writing." -- Aristotle


The foundation for graphology is that a graphic structure defines a particular personality behavior or trait. Handwritingpro's theory is that each graphic structure is generated from primary graphic elements. The four primary expressive elements are the baseline, the enclosure, the imposed structure, and the stroke.

The baseline is the imaginary line that letters rest on dividing upper and lower areas while moving forward to the right. The baseline is used to divide vertical placement and to direct movement. Flipping the written page up side down, that is rotating the page one hundred and eighty degrees, is a convenient way to observe the baseline. The baseline represents reality, threshold of awareness, foundation for movement and living. Baseline patterns represent your attitudes towards life experiences and activities.

Vertical placement above and below the baseline represents the division between your intangible and tangible values, between abstract and concrete concepts, between philosophical and physical ideas and between personal beliefs and personal relationships. The middle area is above the baseline to the top of the middle letters (i.e. the small letters o, a, e, m, n, u, v, etc.). The middle area represents your approach to basic needs of living and to your surroundings. The middle area describes your manner of understanding, learning, and reasoning. It depicts your self or learned viewpoints and how you communicate them.

Horizontal movement along the baseline represents the individual's reaction to experiences, living values, time demands, learning (right motion- to advance, expand, and progress and left motion- to revert, constrict, and regress).

The writing slant is defined as an angle formed by the baseline and a line segment generated from an upstroke above the baseline. The line segment is constructed from an initial point at the baseline intersection and the second point by its upper highest inflection point. The upstroke cannot be a final stroke or the final of a circle. The slant represents emotional responsiveness or reactions to immediate circumstances and/or inner feelings.

An enclosure is formed when a line or lines border an area. An enclosure represents imagination, concept enlargement, and idea expansion. There are three basic forms of enclosures- the loop, the circle, and the stem.

A loop represents self-generating concepts. There are upper and lower vertical loops. An upper loop is formed by a line enclosing an area by starting forward and upward, moving backward, and returning forward and downward with the crossing strokes at the baseline. The letters e and l are examples of a middle and an upper loop, respectively. A lower loop is formed by a line enclosing an area by starting forward and downward, moving backward, and returning forward and upward with the crossing strokes at the baseline. The lower second part of the letters g and y are examples of lower loops. An inverted loop is an enclosure where the stroke crosses vertically away from the baseline. The non-crossing line segment rests on the baseline.

A circle represents other viewpoints or external generated concepts. A circle is formed by a line or lines enclosing an area by starting backward and downward, moving forward, and returning backward and upward meeting or touching at the top. The joined apex points vertically upward. The letter o and the letter a are examples of middle circles. The lower second parts of the letter f and of the letter q are examples of lower circles. An inverted circle is an enclosure where the meeting strokes are joined at bottom pointing downward. The letter s and the buckle in the letter k are examples of inverted circles. A dangling enclosure does not intersect the baseline.

A proportional enclosure follows the "golden ratio" principles and contains balance and symmetry. Phi (pronounced fi rhymes with fly) and phi (pronounced fee) are two mathematical numbers occurring in many relationships throughout nature and the universe. Phi and phi ratios can also be found in handwriting.
The average vertical height or writing size is approximately one half inch (~0.52"). The average vertical middle circle and loop height is approximately a tenth of an inch (~0.1"). The average vertical height for upper loops, lower loops and lower circles is approximately a quarter of an inch (~0.26"). The vertical and horizontal dimension, the diameter, for proportional middle circles (i.e. the small letter o) is approximately a tenth of an inch (~0.1"). The letter o can be viewed as a golden ratio of 1 for vertical and horizontal dimensions. The vertical and horizontal measurements for a proportional middle loop (i.e. the small letter e) is approximately one tenth (~0.1") and ~0.06 of an inch, respectively. For the letter e, the golden ratio for the vertical height and horizontal side is one divided by phi. The proportional lower circles and lower loops have exactly the same vertical and horizontal ratios. Upper loops have the same golden ratios as lower loops. The vertical and horizontal dimensions are approximately a quarter of an inch and a tenth of an inch, respectively (~0.26" and ~0.1"). The golden ratio is Phi + 1 divided by 1. The typical maximum width of a proportional upper loop is located phi or 0.06 inch down from the loop's top. The maximum width of a lower loop is located phi or 0.06 inch up from the loop's bottom. The maximum width for upper loops and lower loops are equidistance from the baseline, approximately 0.2 inches. The total height of the upper or lower loops is approximately 0.26 inch or 1 + Phi. The total height, 1 + Phi, is also equivalent to 1 + 1 + phi because Phi is equal to phi + 1. It is worth noting that for the trait indicating practical goals, the t-bar placement is approximately 0.2 inches or three quarters up crossing the t-stem from the baseline. The golden ratio for t-bar placement on the t-stem relative to the baseline is 2 divided by 1 + Phi which is the same distance for the maximum width for the upper loop.

The imposed written structures control conventional order. The stem is an imposed structure or taught pattern and represents relative learned standards for behavior. A stem is formed by an enclosure that is taught to be restrictive. Learned retraced closed loops of the letters t, d, p, and i are stems.

Other imposed patterns in writing represent relative group standards. A period followed by a capital letter is an imposed interruption with an expanded taught structure. Starting at the upper left, moving to the right, then downwards left to right is an imposed direction for filling in a written page. Spaces allotted to margins are imposed. Your signature is imposed.

The stroke depicts life force, energy flow, and libido. The stroke's pressure represents intellectual vitality, physiological energy, sexual passion, and emotional intensity. Pressure is defined by how much force you apply to the writing surface with the writing instrument and not the hand grip pressure. Pressure is how hard you press down on the paper. Pressure indicates the capacity for vigorous activities.

The stroke's thickness represents sensory capacity. The stroke's color contrast relative to the writing surface represents sensory discrimination. The stroke's straightness represents a firm approach whereas curve a soft approach. The stroke's transition is defined as the point of inflection. This is the point where the line changes its direction and its slope. The line's transition represents the degree of flexibility and cognizance awareness.

An upstroke from and a downstroke to the baseline represent the subconscious and the conscious response to maintain life movement, respectively. Stroke directions on a page are defined as upward towards top, downward towards bottom, forward towards right and backward towards left.

Writing speed is controlled by the individual's physiological clock. It appears that the writer subconsciously maintains a maximum stroke velocity with a superimposed variable oscillating profile. The writer is constantly adjusting the velocity function with changes in the stroke's length, direction, duration, pressure and acceleration. To define a measurement unit or units is extremely difficult even with the aid of a computer's writing pad to capture the process. The basic unit of measurement is not the letter which makes it difficult for computer aided reading of handwriting. The secondary affects on speed are grip pressure, distance of the pen hold to the pen point, pen slant to the paper, pen point rotation, and pen point pressure to the paper. The thinnest fastest stroke is a straight forty five degree line moving up to the right where the finger-thumb controls the vertical and the wrist the horizontal motions. Fast writing is a catalyst to inner energy enhancing rapid movement, thinking, and reactions. Writing size represents the difference between inner and outer control of attention.

Trait intensity is determined by the quality of the graphic stroke-structure pattern and it's frequency of occurrence. Each character trait is explained by the graphic structure definition. Each graphic sign has a specific distinct value. It cannot represent a different or opposite meaning. Each defined behavior is represented graphically and must adhere to the described graphic principles. Each trait depicted in the GLOSSARY follows this coherent theoretical foundation and has been empirically validated by Stephen Bongiovanni.

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