words are the symbols of mental experience, and written words
the symbol of spoken words. Just as all men have not the same
speech sounds, so all men have not the same writing." --
The foundation for graphology
is that a graphic structure defines a particular personality
behavior or trait. Handwritingpro's theory is that each graphic
structure is generated from primary graphic elements. The four
primary expressive elements are the baseline,
the enclosure, the imposed structure, and the stroke.
The baseline is the imaginary line that letters rest
on dividing upper and lower areas while moving forward to the
right. The baseline is used to divide vertical placement and
to direct movement. Flipping the written page up side down, that
is rotating the page one hundred and eighty degrees, is a convenient
way to observe the baseline. The baseline represents reality,
threshold of awareness, foundation for movement and living. Baseline
patterns represent your attitudes towards life experiences and
Vertical placement above and below the baseline represents
the division between your intangible and tangible values, between
abstract and concrete concepts, between philosophical and physical
ideas and between personal beliefs and personal relationships.
The middle area is above the baseline to the top of the middle
letters (i.e. the small letters o, a, e, m, n, u, v, etc.). The
middle area represents your approach to basic needs of living
and to your surroundings. The middle area describes your manner
of understanding, learning, and reasoning. It depicts your self
or learned viewpoints and how you communicate them.
Horizontal movement along the baseline represents the individual's
reaction to experiences, living values, time demands, learning
(right motion- to advance, expand, and progress and left motion-
to revert, constrict, and regress).
The writing slant is defined as an angle formed by
the baseline and a line segment generated from an upstroke above
the baseline. The line segment is constructed from an initial
point at the baseline intersection and the second point by its
upper highest inflection point. The upstroke cannot be a final
stroke or the final of a circle. The slant represents
emotional responsiveness or reactions to immediate circumstances
and/or inner feelings.
An enclosure is formed
when a line or lines border an area. An enclosure represents
imagination, concept enlargement, and idea expansion. There are
three basic forms of enclosures- the loop, the circle, and
A loop represents self-generating concepts. There are
upper and lower vertical loops. An upper loop is formed by a
line enclosing an area by starting forward and upward, moving
backward, and returning forward and downward with the crossing
strokes at the baseline. The letters e and l are examples of
a middle and an upper loop, respectively. A lower loop is formed
by a line enclosing an area by starting forward and downward,
moving backward, and returning forward and upward with the crossing
strokes at the baseline. The lower second part of the letters
g and y are examples of lower loops. An inverted loop is an enclosure
where the stroke crosses vertically away from the baseline. The
non-crossing line segment rests on the baseline.
A circle represents other viewpoints or external generated
concepts. A circle is formed by a line or lines enclosing an
area by starting backward and downward, moving forward, and returning
backward and upward meeting or touching at the top. The joined
apex points vertically upward. The letter o and the letter
a are examples of middle circles. The lower second parts
of the letter f and of the letter q are examples
of lower circles. An inverted circle is an enclosure where the
meeting strokes are joined at bottom pointing downward. The letter
s and the buckle in the letter k are examples of
inverted circles. A dangling enclosure does not intersect the
A proportional enclosure follows the "golden ratio"
principles and contains balance and symmetry. Phi (pronounced
fi rhymes with fly) and phi (pronounced fee) are two mathematical
numbers occurring in many relationships throughout nature and
the universe. Phi and phi ratios can also be found in handwriting.
The average vertical height or writing size is approximately
one half inch (~0.52"). The average vertical middle circle
and loop height is approximately a tenth of an inch (~0.1").
The average vertical height for upper loops, lower loops and
lower circles is approximately a quarter of an inch (~0.26").
The vertical and horizontal dimension, the diameter, for proportional
middle circles (i.e. the small letter o) is approximately a tenth
of an inch (~0.1"). The letter o can be viewed as a golden
ratio of 1 for vertical and horizontal dimensions. The vertical
and horizontal measurements for a proportional middle loop (i.e.
the small letter e) is approximately one tenth (~0.1") and
~0.06 of an inch, respectively. For the letter e, the golden
ratio for the vertical height and horizontal side is one divided
by phi. The proportional lower circles and lower loops have exactly
the same vertical and horizontal ratios. Upper loops have the
same golden ratios as lower loops. The vertical and horizontal
dimensions are approximately a quarter of an inch and a tenth
of an inch, respectively (~0.26" and ~0.1"). The golden
ratio is Phi + 1 divided by 1. The typical maximum width of a
proportional upper loop is located phi or 0.06 inch down from
the loop's top. The maximum width of a lower loop is located
phi or 0.06 inch up from the loop's bottom. The maximum width
for upper loops and lower loops are equidistance from the baseline,
approximately 0.2 inches. The total height of the upper or lower
loops is approximately 0.26 inch or 1 + Phi. The total height,
1 + Phi, is also equivalent to 1 + 1 + phi because Phi is equal
to phi + 1. It is worth noting that for the trait indicating
practical goals, the t-bar placement is approximately 0.2 inches
or three quarters up crossing the t-stem from the baseline. The
golden ratio for t-bar placement on the t-stem relative to the
baseline is 2 divided by 1 + Phi which is the same distance for
the maximum width for the upper loop.
The imposed written structures
control conventional order. The stem is an imposed structure
or taught pattern and represents relative learned standards for
behavior. A stem is formed by an enclosure that is taught to
be restrictive. Learned retraced closed loops of the letters
t, d, p, and i are stems.
Other imposed patterns in writing represent relative
group standards. A period followed by a capital letter is an
imposed interruption with an expanded taught structure. Starting
at the upper left, moving to the right, then downwards left to
right is an imposed direction for filling in a written page.
Spaces allotted to margins are imposed. Your signature is imposed.
The stroke depicts life
force, energy flow, and libido. The stroke's pressure represents
intellectual vitality, physiological energy, sexual passion,
and emotional intensity. Pressure is defined by how much force
you apply to the writing surface with the writing instrument
and not the hand grip pressure. Pressure is how hard you press
down on the paper. Pressure indicates the capacity for vigorous
The stroke's thickness represents sensory capacity. The stroke's
color contrast relative to the writing surface represents sensory
discrimination. The stroke's straightness represents a firm approach
whereas curve a soft approach. The stroke's transition is defined
as the point of inflection. This is the point where the line
changes its direction and its slope. The line's transition represents
the degree of flexibility and cognizance awareness.
An upstroke from and a downstroke to the baseline represent
the subconscious and the conscious response to maintain life
movement, respectively. Stroke directions on a page are defined
as upward towards top, downward towards bottom, forward towards
right and backward towards left.
Writing speed is controlled by the individual's physiological
clock. It appears that the writer subconsciously maintains a
maximum stroke velocity with a superimposed variable oscillating
profile. The writer is constantly adjusting the velocity function
with changes in the stroke's length, direction, duration, pressure
and acceleration. To define a measurement unit or units is extremely
difficult even with the aid of a computer's writing pad to capture
the process. The basic unit of measurement is not the letter
which makes it difficult for computer aided reading of handwriting.
The secondary affects on speed are grip pressure, distance of
the pen hold to the pen point, pen slant to the paper, pen point
rotation, and pen point pressure to the paper. The thinnest fastest
stroke is a straight forty five degree line moving up to the
right where the finger-thumb controls the vertical and the wrist
the horizontal motions. Fast writing is a catalyst to inner energy
enhancing rapid movement, thinking, and reactions. Writing size
represents the difference between inner and outer control of
Trait intensity is determined
by the quality of the graphic stroke-structure pattern and it's
frequency of occurrence. Each character trait is explained by
the graphic structure definition. Each graphic sign has a specific
distinct value. It cannot represent a different or opposite meaning.
Each defined behavior is represented graphically and must adhere
to the described graphic principles. Each trait depicted in the
follows this coherent theoretical foundation and has been empirically
validated by Stephen Bongiovanni.