physiological and psychological functions are depicted in a person's
handwriting. The act of writing contains spontaneous actions
for the purpose of communicating ideas. The examination of a
written specimen is the legal basis for forensic identification
of an individual. The consistency of script features with their
graphometric measurements is repeatable and reliable. Writing
is expressive behavior and communicates personality characteristics.
The appearance of the written specimen and the tactile sensation
of the written performance are the communication vehicles. Writing
is a learned habit where the writer has refashioned basic forms.
The look and feel of writing dictates our style of writing rather
than our formal training. Your writing is the result of your
perception of your pen-stroke's touch and visual images.
The act of handwriting
uniquely fulfills the requirements for a projective personality
test. The writer records responses to testing stimuli by writing.
The writer spontaneously constructs random parts (strokes) to
form known patterns (letters) into communicated ideas (words).
Imposed organization to these ideas (sentences) in a limited
area (page) conveys a conscious creative purpose (message). The
physical data is recorded as a written specimen.
The act of writing
contains human physiological and neural pathway requirements
for extremely complex functions. The tactile manipulation of
the writing instrument while composing a creative message involves
a myriad of brain activities. Writing combines and uses elements
of speaking, reading, composing, and eye-hand coordination. It
is difficult to perform other tasks while writing such as exercising,
holding a conversation, and operating a computer. The series
execution of writing contains advanced prioritized planning and
parallel cognition. Dynamically integrating perception, motion,
and cognition is an involved task requiring your full attention.
Martin Lotze/University of Greifswald used a functional magnetic
resonance imaging, fMRI, to monitor brain activity during writing.
The fMRI scanners indicated many active and complex regions of
the brain being utilized while writing.
for a projective personality test are interpretative, constructive,
cathartic, constitutive, and creative. Interpretative is to generate
meaningless patterns-drawing strokes. Constructive is to place
known parts into patterns-writing letters, linking letters, constructing
words. Cathartic is to project and release emotions- mechanism
of writing. Constitutive is to impose organization upon chaotic
material-maintaining sentence structure, filling in spaces with
capitals, periods, baseline, starting and finishing lines. Creative
is to generate a coherent message-the purpose of writing. The
act of writing satisfies all of the test conditions for graphically
depicting personality according to Lawrence K. Frank's grouping
of projective techniques. Writing is projecting a personality
description. A particular graphic stroke-structure relates to
a specific behavior or underlying disposition. The test process
is the systematic observation of graphic signs or written indicators.
Behavior, defined here as the observable compendium of traits,
is measured while the subject is unaware of the test. The subject
cannot significantly alter the test procedure or the findings.
A graphic indicator is an expressive movement that is the connecting
link to personality. The graphic indicator is a visible sign
or symbol of an invisible behavioral attribute. Mathematical
and scientific principles can be applied to the graphic symbols
to understand an individual. A pattern of behavior is determined
from these graphic gestures and their inter-relationships.
the routinely examined written specimen is used to identify a
particular writer. When you are writing your hand and fingers
are moving faster than you can consciously control them, but
they are under conscious control when you draw or paint. Oriental
ideograms are considered picture or symbolic writing and do not
apply. The vast majority of graphometric measurements are stable
from test to retest and consistent with time. Another individual
cannot duplicate a person's writing rhythm. It is basically impossible
to replicate an individual's pen-stroke construction and speed